StThTr 23/1 (2020)
Tanulmányok / Research articles
Pannonhalmi Főapátság / Pannonhalma Archabbey
Mosaburg/Zalavár; Pannonia; Pribina; Saint Hadrian the Martyr; Diocletian persecution; Saint Stephen King of Hungary; Salzburg mission; Cardinal András Báthory;
In the year 2019 were celebrated the thousand years of the founda- tion of the Zalavár Benedictine Monastery under the Patrocinium of Saint Hadrian the Martyr on the western shore of the Lake Balaton in Hungary, and this is an occasion to contemplate the significance of this place and of this heritage. Though the Abbey is not existent after 1950, its beginnings are more important in the Carolingian Empire, after the Avar Period, as the Salzburg Benedictine missionaries christianized the territory and as the Slavic Prince Pribina came under Carolingian rule. It was this time to found the first church of Saint Hadrian, a Martyr in Nicomedia in the times of Diocletian's persecution and which relics were translated to Rome in the 5th or 6th Century. The cult became important in this Church, which building was identical with the Roman Curia, i. e. the Senate, and the consecration of this church on September 8th became the feast of the Saint in the Occident. This became a titular church and was the titular church of the Transylvanian Cardinal András Báthory, in the 16th century. Turning to Pribina, he gathered Saints Cyril and Methodius and their pupils in this church and against the opposition of the Archbishops of Salzburg, gained Pontifical permission of Pope Hadrian II to celebrate Christian liturgy in Slavic language in his Province and the nomination of Methodius to Metropolite of Pannonia. This early beginnings were important for the Hungarian christianization and explain why Saint Stephen the first King of Hungary received so easily the Roman blessings, i. e. the Holy Crown and the erection of the Metropoly of Esztergom in his kingdom. In medieval Hungary the name of the kingdom was alternating "Hungary" and "Pannonia", in Christian inter- pretation "Pannonia Sacra". This aspect could help to concile Slavic (e. g. Slovakian) and Hungarian interpretation of their common history. This history is living today in the use of the word "Church", which originates of the Latin word "Castellum" (etymon of the city name "Keszthely" at the Lake Balaton), which is in the Western Slavic languages: "Kosciól" (Polish), "Kostel" (Czech and Slovak). In Polish means both as building and as gathering of people, in Czech and Slovak only as building. In Hungarian the use of the Latin word "templum" is rooted, as building. Common heritage of the ancient Roman word "Castellum".
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Babeş–Bolyai Tudományegyetem / Babeş–Bolyai University
Kolozsvár – Gyulafehérvár / Cluj-Napoca – Alba Iulia (Romania)
Áron Márton; episcopal ordination; Cluj-Napoca; infrastructure; church;
Áron Márton was ordained bishop of Alba Iulia on 12 February 1939 in St. Michael's Church in Cluj-Napoca, where he had been introduced as the new parish priest only three months earlier. Even today, the question of why his episcopal ordination took place in Cluj-Napoca and not in Alba Iulia remains unanswered. In the foreword of "Imacsokrok Márton Áron püspöknek a Gyulafehérvári Főegyházmegyei Levéltár gyűjteményében" ("Spiritual Bouquets to bishop Áron Márton in the Archdiocesan Archives of Alba Iulia"), published at the end of 2020, bishop emeritus Msgr. Dr. György Jakubinyi answered this question in one sentence: "The most probable reason for the episcopal ordination in Cluj-Napoca appears to be the attachment of the new bishop to the place of his previous pastoral activity," that is, to Cluj- Napoca. In this study, I try to give a more detailed answer to the question of the place of Áron Márton's consecration.
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Pázmány Péter Katolikus Egyetem / Pázmány Péter Catholic University
Csíksomlyó; Joannes Kájoni; Franciscan Grammar School; mystery; Passion drama; Drama of the Assumption; Drama for Corpus Christi Day; Heavenly Trial; doctrine of the Trinity; Incarnation of Christ;
In the grammar school of Csíksomlyó (Șumuleu Ciuc), a Franciscan site of Marian pilgrimage in Transylvania, 104 school plays were produced by the pupils between 1721 and 1786. These were predominantly mysteries in the vernacular: Good-Friday Passions, Judgement-Day Dramas and the odd play for Corpus Christi Day or the Assumption. This annual tradition of education as well as pastoral care preserved the characteristics of mediaeval West European mysteries for the longest time and in the farthest geographical location. This paper addresses the question of how these mysteries presented theological or dogmatic facts as staged Poor Man's Bibles, that is, theatrical catechesis. The first part examines the 106 types of New Testament scenes and their 71 Old Testament antitypes. The following Roman Catholic dogmas were staged in Csíksomlyó: the Trinity; the Creation of the World; the Fall of the Devils; the Fall of Humanity; the Incarnation of the Christ (the so-called Heavenly Trial, Proces de Paradis); the Immaculate Conception, Virginity, Assumption, and Intercession of the Virgin Mary (Maria Advocata); the doctrine of the Eucharist. The theological teachings were cast in the form of human and allegorical figures and presented by the grammar-school students to a numerous and predominantly illiterate audience on a three-level stage, in mother-tongue performances of illustrative verse, in a style adequately sacred as well as easy to comprehend.
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Egri Hittudományi Főiskola / Theological College of Eger
law school; Law Academy of Eger; Foglarianum; university; Canon law;
Anyone who examines the history of the city of Eger will inevitably meet the so-called "university idea" which caught fire in the 18th century but only became a reality in the 21st century. Eger not only plays an important role in the political history of the country, but also represents lasting values in its cultural history. One of this, doomed by the past, is its activity on law education which flourished between the 18th and 20th century, however, due to social and political changes, it suffered decline and eventually ceased to exist. The modernization aspirations of the Habsburg Empire, the tensions between national and imperial intentions, the social and political crises, the turning points towards the end of the 19th century, made possible a form of training that, despite political debates, supplied the legal and administrative task required by the state of that era to function. In this study, we explore the essential elements of 209 years, especially the early times, and place them in the historical process. The particular motive of the topic selection was the fact that the intention of the founder has been finally realized: Eger's institution of higher education became a university and will hopefully receive the Catholic denotation one day.
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Instituto de Filosofía Edith Stein / Institute of Philosophy Edith Stein
body; drama; beauty; self-gift; pregnancy;
This philosophical meditation on the drama of bodily existence and sexual identity intends to explain and complement the reflection of Ricardo Aldana, who considered these issues from the Communio-theology point of view represented by Hans Urs von Balthasar and Adrienne von Speyr. The main claim to be exposed and phenomenologically corroborated is that the horizon of correctly interpreting the phenomenon of bodily existence is an existential and dramatic encounter with the Trinitarian reality. The context of an adequate response to one's unique and sexual bodily existence is predetermined by Mary's "Fiat!" and Christ's redemptive sacrifice; these two yeses to divine love created the possibility for a radical freedom to embrace creation when it comes to the gift of bodily existence. The dramatic nature of our fundamental relationship with the body is characterized in two steps: first, by analyzing the paradoxes of how the body is given to us; and second, by argu- ing that the drama of being exposed to bodily existence can lead us through bodily self-gift (sacrification) and care for the (bodily existing) other to the discovery and contemplative appreciation of the body.
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Műhely / Workshop
Babeş–Bolyai Tudományegyetem / Babeş–Bolyai University
Kolozsvár / Cluj-Napoca (Romania)
heroism; martyrdom; development; battle; earthly glory; divine glory; offering of life;
Faced with the reality of the 21st century, we can confirm that the archetype of the hero no longer exists in the form it was used to in previous centuries. In this study, the author wishes to show the evolution of the image of heroism through three different fields of human sciences. If we analyse the prototype of the ancient hero from the point of view of ancient literature, we see a man who was overwhelmed by earthly glory, the laurel crown on his head and the esteem of the people. We can say with the greatest certainty that this image has been preserved throughout the centuries in the history of most nations. In the history of the Hungarian people (in the 17th and 20th centuries) there is a very special aspect of heroism in which the hero's struggle contains a theological-national additive, whereby the hero enters the sanctuary of the people and shows us his supernatural struggle for the belief in national freedom. Finally, if we reflect deeply on the concept of martyrdom, it reveals the axiom that authentic martyrdom is found in Christianity, where the struggle of the faithful is for the divine goal, for eternal glory. This struggle, this divine glory, is no longer selfish, but is directed towards the sublime and divine faith, and this aspect has been constant in every century of the Church, including Transylvania. Analysing the lives of the ten martyrs of Transylvania, we can confirm that the essence of their heroism is identical to that of the martyrs of the early Church, i.e. the idea of Christian martyrdom is consistently the same..
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